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[Dasaratha's kingdom and greatness of Ayodhya].

सर्वा पूर्वमियं येषामासीत्कृत्स्ना वसुन्धरा ।

प्रजापतिमुपादाय नृपाणां जयशालिनाम् ।।1.5.1।।


सर्वाः all (bounded by all islands), कृत्स्ना entirely, इयं वसुन्धरा this earth, प्रजापतिम् उपादाय commencing from Prajapati (Manu) and his descendents, जयशालिनाम् of victorious, येषां नृपाणाम् relating to those kings, पूर्वम् in the olden periods, आसीत् belonged.

Formerly, this entire earth belonged to those victorious kings starting from Prajapati (Manu).
येषां स सगरो नाम सागरो येन खानित: ।

षष्टि: पुत्रसहस्राणि यं यान्तं पर्यवारयन् ।।1.5.2।।


येन by whom, सागर: ocean, खानित: was made to be dug, यान्तम् while he was marching (to the battle), यम् whom, षष्टि: पुत्रसहस्राणि sixty thousand sons, पर्यवारयन् surrounded by, स: that, सगरो नाम king named Sagara, येषाम् amongst those.

Among them a king named Sagara got the ocean dug and his sixty thousand sons surrounded him whenever he went (to battle).
इक्ष्वाकूणामिदं तेषां राज्ञां वंशे महात्मनाम् ।

महदुत्पन्नमाख्यानं रामायणमिति श्रुतम् ।।1.5.3।।


तेषाम् their, महात्मनाम् mighty monarchs, इक्ष्वाकूणाम् of the Ikshvakus, राज्ञाम् of kings, वंशे in that race, रामायणमिति known as 'Ramayanam', श्रुतम् celebrated, महत् great, इदम् this, आख्यानम् epic, उत्पन्नम् arose.

It was from the family of mighty monarchs with Ikshvaku as its founder and the kings born in that race, the celebrated epic known as the 'Ramayanam' arose.
तदिदं वर्तयिष्यामि सर्वं निखिलमादित: ।

धर्मकामार्थसहितं श्रोतव्यमनसूयया ।।1.5.4।।


तत् thence, इदम् this (Ramayanam), सर्वम् completely, वर्तयिष्यामि I shall propagate in this world, निखिलम् the entire Ramayanam, धर्मकामार्थसहितम् incorporating the merits of dharma, artha and kama, आदित: from the beginning, अनसूयया without prejudice, श्रोतव्यम् should be heard .

I shall propagate this Ramayanam, incorporating the merits of dharma, artha and kama, and complete in all respects. It deserves to be heard right from the start without prejudice.
कोसलो नाम मुदितस्स्फीतो जनपदो महान् ।

निविष्टस्सरयूतीरे प्रभूतधनधान्यवान् ।।1.5.5।।


प्रभूतधनधान्यवान् abundant in foodgrains and wealth, मुदित: rejoiced, स्फीत: prosperous, कोसलो नाम named Kosala, महान् great, जनपद: country, सरयूतीरे on the banks of river Sarayu, निविष्ट: was situated.

On the banks of river Sarayu, a great and prosperous country named Kosala, abundant in foodgrains and wealth and inhabited by contended people, was situated.
अयोध्या नाम नगरी तत्रासील्लोकविश्रुता ।

मनुना मानवेन्द्रेण या पुरी निर्मिता स्वयम् ।।1.5.6।।


तत्र in that Kosala country, या पुरी that city, मानवेन्द्रेण by lord of men, मनुना by Manu, स्वयम् personally, निर्मिता built, अयोध्या नाम named Ayodhya, लोकविश्रुता famous, नगरी city, आसीत् existed.

In the country called Kosala was the famous capital city of Ayodhya built by the lord of men, Manu .
आयता दश च द्वे च योजनानि महापुरी ।

श्रीमती त्रीणि विस्तीर्णा सुविभक्तमहापथा ।।1.5.7।।


श्रीमती beautiful and pleasing, सुविभक्तमहापथा welllaid out thoroughfares, महापुरी that great city of Ayodhya, दश च द्वे च twelve, योजनानि yojanas (fortyeight krosas or ninetysix miles), आयता in length, त्रीणि three yojanas (twelve krosas or twenty four miles), विस्तीर्णा in breadth.

With welllaid out thoroughfares, the beautiful and prosperous city of Ayodhya extended for twelve yojanas in length and three yojanas in breadth.
राजमार्गेण महता सुविभक्तेन शोभिता ।

मुक्तपुष्पावकीर्णेन जलसिक्तेन नित्यश: ।।1.5.8।।


सुविभक्तेन with welllaid out, मुक्तपुष्पावकीर्णेन strewn with fully blown blossoms, नित्यश: regularly, जलसिक्तेन sprinkled with water, महता by great, राजमार्गेण by principal highway, शोभिता looked splendid.

It looked splendid with its welllaid out and broad highway strewn with flowers and regularly sprinkled with water.
तां तु राजा दशरथो महाराष्ट्रविवर्धन: ।

पुरीमावासयामास दिवं देवपतिर्यथा ।।1.5.9।।


महाराष्ट्रविवर्धन: developing the prosperity of that great kingdom, राजा दशरथ: king Dasaratha, देवपति: Indra, दिवं यथा like heaven, तां पुरीम् that city, आवासयामास lived.

King Dasartha, augmenting the prosperity of the great kingdom, lived in the city of Ayodhya like Indra in heaven.
कवाटतोरणवतीं सुविभक्तान्तरापणाम् ।

सर्वयन्त्रायुधवतीमुपेतां सर्वशिल्पिभि: ।।1.5.10।।


कवाटतोरणवतीम् having arched outer gateways ornamented with panel doors, सुविभक्तान्तरापणाम् numerous welllaid local markets, सर्वयन्त्रायुधवतीम् having all kinds of instruments and weapons, सर्वशिल्पिभि: all kinds of artificers, उपेताम् possessed of.

The city where all kinds of artificers lived had arched outer gateways, wellarranged local markets and all kinds of instruments and weapons.
सूतमागधसम्बाधां श्रीमतीमतुलप्रभाम् ।

उच्चाट्टालध्वजवतीं शतघ्नीशतसङ्कुलाम् ।।1.5.11।।


सूतमागधसम्बाधाम् abounded in euologists and genealogists praising the kings, श्रीमतीम् prosperous, अतुलप्रभाम् having matchless splendour, उच्चाट्टालध्वजवतीम् with stately edifices decorated with flags, शतघ्नीशतसङ्कुलाम् possessed of hundreds of sataghnis (missiles).

With matchless splendour, it abounded in eulogists and genealogists. It contained stately edifices decorated with flags and hundreds of sataghnis (missiles).
वधूनाटकसङ्घैश्च संयुक्तां सर्वत: पुरीम् ।

उद्यानाम्रवणोपेतां महतीं सालमेखलाम् ।।1.5.12।।


वधूनाटकसङ्घैश्च by hosts of female dancers and actors, संयुक्ताम् furnished with, सर्वत: पुरीम् on all sides of the city (surrounded by suburban towns), उद्यानाम्रवणोपेताम् filled with gardens and mangogroves, महतीम् extensive, सालमेखलाम् rampart of sal trees as a girdle.

The city with suburban towns on all sides had several female dancers and actors.It was filled with gardens and mangogroves. And girdled by sal trees.
दुर्गगम्भीरपरिघां दुर्गामन्यैर्दुरासदाम् ।

वाजिवारणसम्पूर्णां गोभिरुष्ट्रै: खरैस्तथा ।।1.5.13।।


दुर्गगम्भीरपरिघाम् having strong fortifications and deep moat, दुर्गाम् difficult to access, अन्यै: by others, दुरासदाम् incapable of being approached, वाजिवारणसम्पूर्णां abounded with horses and elephants, तथा and, गोभि: by cattle, उष्ट्रै: by camels, खरै: by mules.

It was enclosed by strong fortifications and a deep moat. No enemy can ever enter and occupy that city. It abounded with several elephants and horses, cattle, camels and mules.
सामन्तराजसङ्घैश्च बलिकर्मभिरावृताम् ।

नानादेशनिवासैश्च वणिग्भिरुपशोभिताम् ।।1.5.14।।


बलिकर्मभि: by kings who make payment of tribute, सामन्तराजसङ्घैश्च by a host of tributary kings from neighbouring kingdoms, आवृताम् thronged, नानादेशनिवासै: by people from different countries, वणिग्भि: च with merchants also, उपशोभिताम् embellished.

It was embellished with a host of tributary kings who used to pay tributes and with merchants from different countries.
प्रासादै रत्नविकृतै: पर्वतैरुपशोभिताम् ।

कूटागारैश्च सम्पूर्णामिन्द्रस्येवामरावतीम् ।।1.5.15।।


रत्नविकृतै: modified with precious gems(and decorated), प्रासादै: by palaces, पर्वतै: by mountains, उपशोभिताम् resplendent, कूटागारै: च by mansions, सम्पूर्णाम् complete, इन्द्रस्य अमरावतीमिव like Indra's Amaravati.

Like Indra's Amaravati, it was adorned by mountains and mansions with precious stones.
चित्रामष्टापदाकारां नरनारीगणैर्युताम् ।

सर्वरत्नसमाकीर्णां विमानगृहशोभिताम् ।।1.5.16।।


चित्राम् wonderful to behold, अष्टापदाकाराम् like the shape of a board used to play the game of Ashtapada, the game of chance, नरनारीगणै: by groups of men and women, युताम् endowed with, सर्वरत्नसमाकीर्णाम् rich in all kinds of gems, विमानगृहशोभिताम् adorned with sevenstoried palaces.

With groups of men and women and adorned with sevenstoried palaces, it looked wonderful like a board where the game of ashtapada, is played. It was rich in all kinds of gems.
गृहगाढामविच्छिद्रां समभूमौ निवेशिताम् ।

शालितण्डुलसम्पूर्णामिक्षुकाण्डरसोदकाम् ।।1.5.17।।


गृहगाढाम् dense with dwellings, अविच्छिद्राम् no place left without being utilised, समभूमौ on a levelled land, निवेशिताम् constructed, शालितण्डुलसम्पूर्णाम् stocked fully with paddy and rice, इक्षुकाण्डरसोदकाम् water tasting like sugarcane juice.

Its dwellings were constructed on levelled ground with no space left unutilised it was abundant stocked with fialgrained rice and water which fasted sweet like sugarcane juice.
दुन्दुभीभिर्मृदङ्गैश्च वीणाभि: पणवैस्तथा ।

नादितां भृशमत्यर्थं पृथिव्यां तामनुत्तमाम् ।।1.5.18।।


दुन्दुभीभि: by trumpets, मृदङ्गैश्च by mrudangas, वीणाभि: by vinas, तथा and, पणवै: by panavas, भृशम् excessively, नादितां resounded, पृथिव्याम् on earth, अत्यर्थम् exceedingly, अनुत्तमाम् unsurpassed, ताम् that city.

The city echoed with the sounds of trumpets, mrudangas, vinas and panavas. There was no city on earth superior to Ayodhya.
विमानमिव सिद्धानां तपसाधिगतं दिवि ।

सुनिवेशितवेश्मान्तां नरोत्तमसमावृताम् ।।1.5.19।।


दिवि in heaven, तपसा through austerities, अधिगतम् acquired, सिद्धानाम् by siddhas, विमानमिव like an aerialcar, सुनिवेशितवेश्मान्ताम् of perfectly constructed palaces, नरोत्तमसमावृताम् inhabited by noblest of men.

Like an aerial car acquired by the siddhas in heaven through their austerities, the palaces were perfectly constructed in rows and inhabited by the noblest of men.
ये च बाणैर्न विध्यन्ति विविक्तमपरापरम् ।

शब्दवेध्यं च विततं लघुहस्ता विशारदा: ।।1.5.20।।

सिंहव्याघ्रवराहाणां मत्तानां नर्दतां वने ।

हन्तारो निशितैश्शस्त्रैर्बलाद्बाहुबलैरपि ।।1.5.21।।

तादृशानां सहस्रैस्तामभिपूर्णां महारथै: ।

पुरीमावासयामास राजा दशरथस्तदा ।।1.5.22।।


लघुहस्ता: sharphanded, विशारदा: skilled(in fight), ये who, विविक्तम् solitary person, अपरापरम् one who has no father or son, शब्दवेध्यम् following the sound, विततं च spreading over (the fleeing foe), बाणै: with arrows, न विध्यन्ति would not pierce, वने in the forest, नर्दताम् roaring, मत्तानाम् inebriated, सिंहव्याघ्रवराहाणाम् lions, tigers and boars, निशितै: with sharp, शस्त्रै: weapons, बलात् with the strength (of instruments), बाहुबलैरपि with the strength of arms as well, हन्तार: slayers, तादृशानाम् relating to those, महारथै: by maharathas, सहस्रै: in thousands, अभिपूर्णां filled, ताम् that, पुरीम् city of Ayodhya, तदा then, राजा दशरथ: king Dasaratha, आवासयामास inhabited.

The city was inhabited by thousands of warriors known as maharathas. They were skilled archers and sharphanded. They would not pierce with arrows, solitary persons, persons without defence, fleeing foes who could be tracked down through hints from sound. With sharp arrows or with the strength of their arms, they would kill
roaring and inebriated lions, tigers, boars etc. in the forest. It was in that city (of Ayodhya) that king Dasaratha lived.
तामग्निमद्भिर्गुणवद्भिरावृतां

द्विजोत्तमैर्वेदषडङ्गपारगै: ।

सहस्रदैस्सत्यरतैर्महात्मभि

र्महर्षिकल्पै ऋषिभिश्च केवलै: ।।1.5.23।।


अग्निमद्भि: by brahmins worshipping the sacrificial fire, गुणवद्भि: endowed with virtues, वेदषडङ्गपारगै: versed in four vedas and six vedangas (branches of learning at the end of vedas), सहस्रदै: offering charity in thousands, सत्यरतै: devoted to truth, महात्मभि: by exceedingly wise, महर्षिकल्पै: resembling divine sages, केवलै: ऋषिभि: च by unique sages, द्विजोत्तमै: by excellent dwijas (brahmana, kshatriya and vaisyas), आवृताम् filled with, ताम् that Ayodhya.

That city (of Ayodhya) was filled with excellent dwijas (brahmana, kshatriya and vaisyas) performing rituals of sacrificial fire, virtuous and wellversed in the Vedas and Vedangas. They were generous, truthful and dignified. They were almost equal to rishis and maharshis.
इत्यार्षे श्रीमद्रामायणे वाल्मीकीय आदिकाव्ये बालकाण्डे पञ्चमस्सर्ग:।।
Thus ends the fifth sarga of Balakanda of the holy Ramayana the first epic composed by sage Valmiki.